Do You Know The Difference Between Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes?
Diabetes is a chronic disease that affects millions of people worldwide. It occurs when the body is unable to produce enough insulin or use insulin effectively, leading to high blood sugar levels. There are two types of diabetes, type 1 and type 2, with type 2 being the most common.
Type 1 diabetes, also known as insulin-dependent diabetes, occurs when the body's immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas, leading to little or no insulin production. Insulin is a hormone that regulates blood sugar levels, and without enough insulin, the sugar builds up in the bloodstream, leading to hyperglycemia. Type 1 diabetes usually develops in childhood or adolescence, but it can also occur in adults. People with type 1 diabetes require lifelong insulin therapy to manage their blood sugar levels.
Type 2 diabetes, also known as non-insulin-dependent diabetes, occurs when the body becomes resistant to insulin or doesn't produce enough insulin to maintain normal blood sugar levels. Type 2 diabetes is more common than type 1 diabetes and is often associated with obesity, physical inactivity, and poor diet. Type 2 diabetes can develop at any age but is more common in adults over the age of 45. People with type 2 diabetes may be able to manage their blood sugar levels through lifestyle changes such as diet and exercise, but some may require oral medications or insulin therapy to manage their condition.
Complications of Diabetes
Diabetes can lead to a number of complications if it is not properly managed. The two main types of diabetes are type 1 and type 2, and both can cause complications. Here are some of the most common complications of diabetes:
Cardiovascular disease: Diabetes increases the risk of heart disease, stroke, and other cardiovascular problems.
Nerve damage: High blood sugar levels can damage nerves throughout the body, leading to pain, numbness, and other problems.
Kidney damage: Diabetes can damage the kidneys over time, leading to kidney failure if left untreated.
Eye damage: High blood sugar levels can damage the blood vessels in the eyes, leading to vision problems and even blindness.
Skin problems: Diabetes can cause skin infections, dry skin, and other skin problems.
Hearing loss: People with diabetes are more likely to experience hearing loss than people without diabetes.
Foot problems: Nerve damage and poor blood circulation can cause foot problems, including ulcers and infections that may require amputation.
The Efficacy of Stem Cell Therapy for Diabetes
There is growing interest in the use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as a potential therapy for diabetes. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a type of stem cell that can differentiate into various cell types, including cells that form blood vessels (endothelial cells) and cells that produce connective tissue (fibroblasts). As such, MSCs have been shown to play a key role in angiogenesis (the formation of new blood vessels) and tissue regeneration.
MSCs secrete growth factors and cytokines that stimulate the growth and migration of endothelial cells, which are essential for blood vessel formation. MSCs have been shown to promote the formation of new blood vessels in animal models of ischemic injury, such as heart attacks and strokes.
MSCs can differentiate into endothelial cells and integrate into existing blood vessels, contributing to the growth and stabilization of new blood vessels. MSCs have been shown to improve blood flow and tissue perfusion of ischemic injury.
MSCs can also differentiate into fibroblasts, which are responsible for producing the extracellular matrix (ECM) that supports tissue structure and function. MSCs have been shown to promote the formation of new ECM and enhance tissue repair.
MSCs possess anti-inflammatory properties that help regulate the immune response and promote tissue healing. They have been demonstrated to reduce inflammation and facilitate tissue repair in the context of inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease.
Overall, MSCs have the potential to play a significant role in the development of therapies for angiogenesis and tissue regeneration, particularly in the context of ischemic injury and inflammatory diseases.
Dr. Edwin Chang
What Did The Clinical Trial Say?
Stem Cell-Based Therapy: A Promising Treatment for Diabetic Foot Ulcer: Some studies have proven that stem cell implantation results in improved blood flow circulation in ischemic limbs. Moreover, recent studies have reported that stem cell therapy could reduce amputation rate.